Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body.
Hyperpigmentation on the skin is caused when there is an increase in melanin on the skin. Melanin is a component that plays a major role in the color of the skin. What you have to understand is that a person’s skin color is due to the production of melanin by melanocytes.
Uneven skin pigmentation (or hyperpigmentation as it is often known) is a common skin complaint. Dark spots – known as age spots or sun spots – or dark patches of skin frequently appear on the face, hands and other parts of the body regularly exposed to the sun.